Frontal sinus fracture classifications: a review of literature and presenting a new classification


Mohammad W. El‑Anwar, Ahmed S. Elaaser

Department of Otorhinolaryngology‑Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

Introduction: Several classifications have been published for the frontal sinus (FS) fractures.

Objectives: To review the literature regarding different classifications of the FS fractures to collect and analyze the most commonly used classification and to present a new easily applicable and therapeutically helpful classification that avoids the disadvantages of the previous classifications.

Data synthesis: Repeated searches were performed in the PubMed, LILACS, MEDLINE, SciELO, databases, and Cochrane Library, and the key words used in the search were FS fractures, FS outflow tract, classification, and frontal bone. Collected studies were read and analyzed, and different FS fractures classifications were described and assessed for advantages, disadvantages, missed data, and pitfalls.

Conclusion: This review would be helpful for surgeons to be familiar with different classifications of the FS fractures. A new classification for the FS fractures was presented and described here to overcome the pitfalls of the already described classification and to update the categorization data to the currently used treatment  philosophy and tools to be more applicable and treatment based. Moreover, we precisely provide the supposed appropriate treatment for each FS type.

Keywords: Classification, frontal sinus fractures, frontal sinus outflow tract, internal fixation, nasofrontal, open reduction, orbit.


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